James Ding has served as our independent director since our initial public offering in August 2005. Mr. Ding is currently a managing director of GSR Ventures, which focuses on early stage companies in the artificial intelligence, big data, information technology related healthcare, virtual reality/augmented reality and new media sectors. Prior to that, Mr. Ding served as a co-chairman of the board of directors of AsiaInfo-Linkage Inc., a former NASDAQ-listed company, from July 2010 to January 2014. Mr. Ding also served as the chairman of the board of AsiaInfo from April 2003 to July 2010, and has served as a member of the board since AsiaInfo’s inception in 1993. Mr. Ding served as the chief executive officer and president of AsiaInfo from 1999 to 2003 and as senior vice president and chief technology officer of AsiaInfo from 1993 to 1999. Mr. Ding currently serves as director of the board of AsiaInfo. Mr. Ding received a master’s degree in information science from the University of California, Los Angeles and a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Peking University in China.