registered enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises and not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the determining criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the State
Administration of Taxations general position on how the de facto management body test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises,
individuals or foreigners.
If our offshore entities are deemed PRC resident enterprises, these entities may be subject to
the EIT at the rate of 25% on their global incomes, except that the dividends distributed by our PRC subsidiaries may be exempt from the EIT to the extent such dividends are deemed dividends among qualified resident enterprises.
Should our offshore entities be deemed as PRC resident enterprises, such changes could significantly increase our tax burden
and materially and adversely affect our cash flow and profitability.
PRC Business Tax and VAT
In November 2011, the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation jointly issued two circulars setting out the
details of the pilot VAT reform program, which change the charge of sales tax from business tax to VAT for certain pilot industries. The VAT reform program initially applied only to the pilot industries in Shanghai, and was expanded to eight
additional regions, including, among others, Beijing and Guangdong province, in 2012. In August 2013, the program was further expanded nationwide. In May 2016, the pilot program was extended to cover additional industry sectors such as construction,
real estate, finance and consumer services.
With respect to all of our PRC entities for the period immediately prior to
the implementation of the VAT reform program, revenues from our services are subject to a 5% PRC business tax. Revenues from our online advertising distribution services are subject to an additional 3% cultural business construction fee.
Our entities located in Shanghai, Beijing and Guangdong Province fall within the scope of the program and have been recognized
as the VAT general taxpayers since January 1, 2012, September 1, 2012 and November 1, 2012, respectively, the effective time of the program in each of the regions. Our entities located outside of Shanghai, Beijing and Guangdong
Province have been subject to VAT since August 1, 2013. From the applicable effective time onwards, these entities are required to pay VAT instead of business tax for services that are deemed by the relevant tax authorities to be within the
pilot industries at a rate of 6%. In addition, cultural business construction fee is imposed at the rate of 3% on revenues derived from our online advertising distribution services.
PRC Urban Maintenance and Construction Tax and Education Surcharge
Any entity, foreign-invested or purely domestic, or individual that is subject to consumption tax, VAT and business tax is also
required to pay PRC urban maintenance and construction tax. The rates of urban maintenance and construction tax are 7%, 5% or 1% of the amount of consumption tax, VAT and business tax actually paid depending on where the taxpayer is located. All
entities and individuals who pay consumption tax, VAT and business tax are also required to pay education surcharge at a rate of 3%, and local education surcharges at a rate of 2%, of the amount of VAT, business tax and consumption tax actually