qualitative assessment, we consider primary factors such as industry and market considerations, overall financial performance of the reporting unit, and other specific information related to the
operations. In performing the two-step quantitative impairment test, the first step compares the carrying amount of the reporting unit to the fair value of the reporting unit based on either quoted market
prices of the ordinary shares or estimated fair value using a combination of the income approach and the market approach. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the reporting unit, goodwill is not impaired and we are
not required to perform further testing. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds the fair value of the reporting unit, then we must perform the second step of the impairment test in order to determine the implied fair value of the
reporting units goodwill. The fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to its assets and liabilities in a manner similar to a purchase price allocation in order to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill. If
the carrying amount of the goodwill is greater than its implied fair value, the excess is recognized as an impairment loss.
In 2016, we performed a qualitative assessment for Search Services reporting unit. Based on the requirements of ASC350-20, we evaluated all relevant factors, including but not limited to macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, financial performance, and our share price. We weighed all factors in their
entirety and concluded that it was not more-likely-than-not the fair value was less than the carrying amount of the reporting unit, and further impairment testing on goodwill was unnecessary as of
December 31, 2016. We elected to assess goodwill for impairment using the two-step process for Transaction Service and iQiyi reporting units. Significant management judgment is involved in determining the
estimates and assumptions, and actual results may differ from the estimates and assumptions used in valuations. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value for each reporting unit, which could
trigger future impairment. The judgment in estimating the fair value of reporting units includes forecasts of future cash flows, which are based on our best estimate of future revenue and operating expense growth rates, future capital expenditure
and working capital level, as well as discount rate determined by Weighted Average Cost of Capital approach and the selection of comparable companies operating in similar businesses. We also reviewed marketplace data to assess the reasonableness of
our assumptions, such as discount rate, operating margins and working capital level. The fair value of Transaction Service and iQiyi exceeded their respective carrying amount, and therefore goodwill related to these reporting units were not impaired
and we were not required to perform further testing.
The impairment charges of goodwill are nil for 2014, 2015 and 2016.
Impairment of Long-term Investments
Our long-term investments consist of cost method investments and equity method investments in privately-held companies, held-to-maturity investments with original and remaining maturities of greater than 12 months, and
periodically review our cost method investments and equity method investments for impairment. If we conclude that any of such investments is impaired, we will assess whether such impairment is other-than-temporary. Factors we consider to make such
determination include the performance and financial position of the investee as well as other evidence of market value. Such evaluation includes but is not limited to, reviewing the investees cash position, recent financing, projected and
historical financial performance, cash flow forecasts and financing needs. An impairment loss is recognized in earnings equal to the excess of the investments cost over its fair value at the balance sheet date of the reporting period for which
the assessment is made. The fair value would then become the new cost basis of investment.
For long-term held-to-maturity investments, we evaluate whether a decline in fair value below the amortized cost basis is other-than-temporary in accordance with our policy and ASC topic
320, or ASC 320, InvestmentsDebt and Equity Securities. When we intend to sell an impaired debt security or it is more-likely-than-not that it will be required to sell prior to recovery of its
amortized cost basis, an other-than-temporary